Like all the things around you, drugs or medicine did not magically sprout from the ground and came to be. It is the product of research, formulation development, testing, and so many other variables. Before a drug is released for general usage, it undergoes different phases, starting from the conception of what the drug will be, to the agreement of the company who want it made with the drug development facility. To further understand what goes on, here are several factors to be considered:
The property of the drugs is essential. The manufacturers determine its chemical, mechanical, and even its physical properties before undergoing any steps. The following will affect how it is consumed by the client’s i.e. patients, and how the components of the drugs will survive against some conditions such as stress and temperature changes among many others.
The route by which the drug is taken is considered for the formulation stage. It can be taken orally, and for that, there is the tablet and capsule. Tablets have disintegration time; it can be an immediate release type, or sustained release, which are all determined by the drug development facility. Basically, drugs are made up of active and inactive substances. Around ten percent of drugs are made up of active substances which are the actual drug needed for treatment, while the remaining percentage is composed of binders, fillers, lubricants, and disintegrants.
Compared to the oral preparations which generally come in solid form, drugs that are given via injection are either liquid or lyophilized which are freeze dried. The drug can be administered via injection on subcutaneous, intramuscular, intra-articular, and intravenous. There are also the inhaled drugs and topical drugs which you apply directly to the skin.
As stated earlier, before a drug is released for usage, it undergoes several phases of clinical trials. The drug development facility tests the drugs on healthy subjects to determine the tolerability, as well as the safety of the medicine itself.
The drugs you consume were made to withstand different conditions in temperature, stress, etc. The manufacturers ensure that is safe, effective, and will live according to its shelf life by means of trial and error, and of course, formulation development.